Genetic polymorphisms and periodontal disease
mercredi 14 mars 2018
Getting to the root of genetic risk factors for periodontitis
A recent literature review has examined some of the genetic markers which may be linked to aggressive periodontitis. Researchers at the University of Florida, reviewed studies evaluating specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which could be linked to the disease among people of African descent.
Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease but it has a higher prevalence among individuals of African descent. In 1987, a US study of 11,000 children aged 14–17 years found that children of African-American descent were 15.1 times more likely to have localised aggressive periodontitis (LAP) and 24.6 times more likely to have generalised aggressive periodontitis (GAP). Studies from other parts of the world have also found a similar racial disparity.
As a complex disease, there are many factors influencing periodontitis. A number of studies have investigated the link between specific genes and their variants (polymorphisms) to periodontitis. As genotyping technologies have advanced over the years it has become possible to better test SNPs for any association with complex or multi-factorial diseases.
The review looked at 23 different studies which examined the specific SNPs amongst people of African descent as well as other races. The studies included in the review were all from small test groups, with less than 70 participants each.
The various studies included in the review all had different focuses and a variety of conclusions were drawn, some of which were in conflict with each other. Nevertheless, across the various studies different SNPs were identified to be associated with periodontitis for certain races. The authors of the review note that there is a need for a larger genome-wide association analysis of subjects from African descent, to corroborate some of the findings.
The review was published in the Journal of Periodontal Research.